Dieu a-t-il dicté à Mahomet, par la voix de l'archange Gabriel, le livre arabe nommé Coran, source de l'Islam ? Oui, sans aucun doute, répond le musulman... Et de fait, aucune autre thèse ne nous est habituellement proposée pour expliquer le genèse de l'Islam.
L'auteur de L'Islam, ses véritables origines fonde son étude sur un élément certain et irrécusable : le texte même du Livre saint des musulmans. Si le ton est parfois vif, à l'égard de certains commentateurs conformistes, la démarche de l'étude est menée selon les règles de la recherche historique et de la critique littéraire. Sa conclusion pourra surprendre certains, elle apporte pourtant, au mystère jusqu'ici in-élucidé des origines de l'Islam, une explication cohérente, satisfaisante pour l'esprit.
Three themes dominate the period covered by this book. The first is the consolidation of the new nation-states. Pope and Emperor dwindle in stature; the monarchs of France, Spain and Austria control the map of Europe. The Netherlands create a new mercantile imperialist republic, while England goes through a peculiar transformation ending, typically, in compromise. The second theme is religious persecution and the wars between Catholic and Protestant. Germany and the Netherlands split; France just manages to keep intact; England swings between Anglicanism and Puritanism; Spain hardens into a Catholic police-state. The third is the expansion of Europe over the whole world. Colonists settle in America, and trading missions (often indistinguishable from conquest) are constantly seeking advantage round the rich empires of Asia.
A changing world-picture
Professor Hugh Trevor-Roper, the liveliest mind in 17th century studies, here assembles a team of historians (listed on the back flap of this jacket) who look at the whole subject anew, presenting in condensed and readable form the most up-to- date professional research. The book begins with his own lucid analysis of the century, so divided politically but to a large extent united intellectually and artistically. There follow accounts of Spain, the Netherlands and Central Europe, leading to a brilliant exposition of the turmoil of the Thirty Years’ War, and separate chapters on France and England. The focus then shifts east - to Poland and Russia, the three great Islamic nations (Turkey, Persia and India) and finally, on the fringes of Western civilization, the half understood empires of China and Japan. World history is by the 17th century essentially a single discipline; no one can understand Europe without America or Asia without Europe - a fact too often forgotten in specialist works.
Art as history
This was one of the great ages of realistic illustration, and every aspect of the period is copiously reflected in art—from cartoons to altarpieces and from Dutch stilllifes to Japanese woodcuts. One of the distinctions of this volume is that it can reproduce with extreme precision and in large format hundreds of these absorbing pictorial documents, lending a new dimension to the study of history. This is a book for delight as much as for instruction, for the layman and for the scholar, indeed for everyone with an interest in what has gone to make the world of today.
Eleven distinguished authors
Introduction : The Baroque Century
Hugh Trevor-Roper MA
Regius Professor of Modern History and Fellow of Oriel College University of Oxford
Spain’s Dominion : Problems and policies of a world power
Henry Kamen BA, DPhil Lecturer in History University of Warwick
The Divided Netherlands Rebellion, liberty and nationhood
Charles Wilson MA
Professor of Modern History and Fellow of Jesus College University of Cambridge
Peace in Germany : The Empire before 1618
Claus-Peter Clasen MA
Professor of History University of California
Thirty Years’ War : The European Civil War
H. G. Koenigsberger MA, PhD
Professor of History Cornell University
France : Monarchy and People: From Henri III to Louis XIV
Menna Prestwich MA
Lecturer in Modern History and Fellow of St Hilda’s College University of Oxford
Britain Transformed : Crown, conscience and Commonwealth
G. E. Aylmer MA, DPhil Professor of History University of York
Slav Nations : Poland, and the evolution of Russia
Henry Willetts MA
Reader in Russian History and Fellow of St Anthony’s College
University of Oxford
Empires of Islam : Muslim India, Persia and Turkey
Peter Avery MA
Lecturer in Oriental Studies University of Cambridge
The Oriental World : Ming China and the unification of Japan
Ivan Morris MA
Professor of Japanese History Columbia University
Hans Bielenstein MA, PhD, Fil Dr
Professor of Chinese History Columbia University
Donald Kagan (born May 1, 1932) is an American historian and classicist at Yale University specializing in ancient Greece, notable for his four-volume history of the Peloponnesian War. He formerly taught in the Department of History at Cornell University. At present, Kagan is considered among the foremost American scholars of Greek history.
The first volume of Donald Kagan's acclaimed four-volume history of the Peloponnesian War offers a new evaluation of the origins and causes of the conflict, based on evidence produced by modern scholarship and on a careful reconsideration of the ancient texts. He focuses his study on the question: Was the war inevitable, or could it have been avoided ?
Kagan takes issue with Thucydides' view that the war was inevitable, that the rise of the Athenian Empire in a world with an existing rival power made a clash between the two a certainty. Asserting instead that the origin of the war "cannot, without serious distortion, be treated in isolation from the internal history of the states involved," Kagan traces the connections between domestic politics, constitutional organization, and foreign affairs. He further examines the evidence to see what decisions were made that led to war, at each point asking whether a different decision would have been possible.
This book, the second volume in Donald Kagan's tetralogy about the Peloponnesian War, is a provocative and tightly argued history of the first ten years of the war. Taking a chronological approach that allows him to present at each stage the choices that were open to both sides in the conflict, Kagan focuses on political, economic, diplomatic, and military developments. He evaluates the strategies used by both sides and reconsiders the roles played by several key individuals.
Why did the Peace of Nicias fail to reconcile Athens and Sparta? In the third volume of his landmark four-volume history of the Peloponnesian War, Donald Kagan examines the years between the signing of the peace treaty and the destruction of the Athenian expedition to Sicily in 413 B.C. The principal figure in the narrative is the Athenian politician and general Nicias, whose policies shaped the treaty and whose military strategies played a major role in the attack against Sicily.
In the fourth and final volume of his magisterial history of the Peloponnesian War, Donald Kagan examines the period from the destruction of Athens' Sicilian expedition in September of 413 B.C. to the Athenian surrender to Sparta in the spring of 404 B.C. Through his study of this last decade of the war, Kagan evaluates the performance of the Athenian democracy as it faced its most serious challenge. At the same time, Kagan assesses Thucydides' interpretation of the reasons for Athens’ defeat and the destruction of the Athenian Empire.
The Case for Flat Earth - ODD TV Presentation
This is my flat earth international conference presentation that I made, but never put to use because I didn't go.
How Seasons Work on Flat Earth
In the Flat-Earth model, the Sun and Moon luminaries revolve around the Earth once every 24 hours illuminating like spotlights the areas over which they pass. The Sun’s annual journey from tropic to tropic, solstice to solstice, is what determines the length and character of days, nights and seasons. This is why equatorial regions experience almost year-round summer and heat while higher latitudes North and especially South experience more distinct seasons with harsh winters.
The heliocentric model claims seasons change based on the ball-Earth’s alleged “axial tilt” and “elliptical orbit” around the Sun. Their flawed current model even places us closest to the Sun (91,400,000 miles) in January when its actually winter, and farthest from the Sun (94,500,000 miles) in July when its actually summer throughout much of the Earth. They say due to the ball-Earth’s tilt, different places receive different amounts of direct sunlight and that is what produces the seasonal and temperature changes. This makes little sense, however, because if the Sun’s heat travels over ninety million miles to reach the ball-Earth, how could a slight tilt, a mere few thousand miles maximum, negate the Sun’s ninety million mile journey, giving us simultaneous tropical summers and Antarctic winters ?
“The earth is a stretched-out structure, which diverges from the central north in all directions towards the south. The equator, being midway between the north center and the southern circumference, divides the course of the sun into north and south declination. The longest circle round the world which the sun makes, is when it has reached its greatest southern declination. Gradually going northwards the circle is contracted. In about three months after the southern extremity of its path has been reached, the sun makes a circle round the equator. Still pursuing a northerly course as it goes round and above the world, in another three months the greatest northern declination is reached, when the sun again begins to go towards the south. In north latitudes, when the sun is going north, it rises earlier each day, is higher at noon and sets later; while in southern latitudes at the same time, the sun as a matter of course rises later, reaches a lesser altitude at noon and sets earlier. In northern latitudes during the southern summer, say from September to December, the sun rises later each day, is lower at noon and sets earlier; while in the south he rises earlier, reaches a higher altitude at noon, and sets later each day. This movement round the earth daily is the cause of the alternations of day and night; while his northerly and southerly courses produce the seasons. When the sun is south of the equator it is summer in the south and winter in the north; and vice versa. The fact of the alternation of the seasons flatly contradicts the Newtonian delusion that the earth revolves in an orbit round the sun. It is said that summer is caused by the earth being nearest the sun, and winter by its being farthest from the sun. But if the reader will follow the argument in any text book he will see that according to the theory, when the earth is nearest the sun there must be summer in both northern and southern latitudes; and in like manner when it is farthest from the sun, it must be winter all over the earth at the same time, because the whole of the globe-earth would then be farthest from the sun!!! In short, it is impossible to account for the recurrence of the seasons on the assumption that the earth is globular and that it revolves in an orbit around the sun.”
Thomas Winship, “Zetetic Cosmogeny” (124-125)
Flat Earth is not a Conspiracy Theory - Eric Dubay
The following video is a brief introduction to the many observable, testable, repeatable, scientific facts of our level motionless plane Earth that have been marginalized, suppressed and ridiculed for centuries, in favor of various unobservable, untestable, unscientific theories purporting we live on a tilting, wobbling, spinning, ball-shaped Earth.
Flat Earth has long been touted as the mother of all conspiracy theories, marginalized, suppressed and ridiculed for centuries as being an ignorant ancient unscientific worldview, but the facts of the matter are far from what you have been told. It is a fact, not a theory, that bodies of water always seek and find their own level, from a beaker, a bottle, or a bathtub, to a pond, lake or an ocean, the natural physics of water and other liquids is to find and remain level. It is an unproven, unscientific theory with no observable, measurable, or repeatable evidence, to claim that bodies of water can somehow bend, cling to the exterior of shapes, and show convexity upon their surface. It is a fact that the majority of Earth is covered in such level water, thus making it an unscientific theory to postulate that Earth is actually a gigantic sphere with bendy oceans curving all the way around it.
The Flat Earth awakening on Barcroft TV - Nathan Thompson & ODD TV
The lie we Live - Best Flat Earth interview ever - Eric Dubay
Des conseils pratiques pour cultiver de fines herbes en tenant compte de nos hivers rigoureux et de notre courte saison de jardinage. Plus de cinquante espèces sont illustrées et décrites, avec des notes sur la culture, la récolte, les usages culinaires et médicinaux, les risques pour la santé ainsi que divers aspects fascinants de chaque plante.
Herbes culinaires pour nos jardins de pays froid est un guide complet et convivial de la culture de plus de 50 herbes culinaires, y compris plus de 100 cultivars, dans les conditions climatiques moins qu'idéales auxquelles font face les jardiniers du Nord. Il comprend des descriptions d'herbes, des notes sur la culture et la récolte, des usages culinaires, des faits anecdotiques sur les herbes ainsi que des trucs et techniques de jardinage à l'intention des herboriculturistes des climats froids. Il donne également des conseils spécialisés sur l'utilisation sûre des herbes médicinales. Superbement illustré, l'ouvrage renferme des photos et des dessins botaniques en couleurs.
Sechs Millionen Juden in Polen und Rußland seien von einem unmittelbar bevorstehenden Holocaust bedroht: Diese Behauptung erschien in angesehenen Medien wie etwa der New York Times - aber bereits im Jahre 1919 !
Don Heddesheimers kompakte aber substantielle Studie Der Erste Holocaust dokumentiert die Propaganda der Zeit nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg, in der behauptet wurde, Millionen osteuropäischer Juden befänden sich in Lebensgefahr. Schlagworte wie “Ausrottung” und “Holocaust” tauchten damals ebenso auf wie wiederholt die heute zum Talisman gewordene Sechs-Millionen-Ziffer. Der Erste Holocaust zeigt auf, wie jüdische Spendenaktionen in Amerika riesige Geldsummen mit der Behauptung sammelten, damit verarmten polnischen und russischen Juden helfen zu wollen. Es wird aber auch nachgewiesen, daß die gesammelten Gelder tatsächlich für zionistische und kommunistische “Aufbauprojekte” ausgegeben wurden – einschließlich Banken, Gewerkschaften, Industriegesellschaften und Kibbuze. Heddesheimers Buch enthält ebenfalls augenöffnende Aussagen amerikanischer Diplomaten und Militärattachés, die in Polen und Rußland stationiert waren und die der behaupteten Verfolgung von Juden widersprachen.
Dieses Buch ist eine äußerst wertvolle Studie über die Arbeitsweise amerikanisch-jüdischer Organisationen an einer schicksalhaften Weggabelung der europäischen Geschichte. Es ist eine durchdringende Untersuchung einer verschlagen ausgeklügelten Kampagne von Greuel- und Ausrottungspropaganda – zwei Jahrzehnte vor dem angeblichen Holocaust des Zweiten Weltkrieges !
Dieses Buch verdeutlicht, daß die Behauptung von sechs Millionen leidenden und sterbenden Juden einem Propaganda-Muster folgt, dessen jüdisch-zionistische Wurzeln bis in das frühe 20. Jahrhundert zurückreichen. Der Erste Holocaust ist eine unverzichtbare Bereicherung für jeden, der sich für kritische Geschichtsschreibung interessiert.